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Safety equipment

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.

ARTICLE 14: SAFETY EQUIPMENT
14.1 Fire extinguishers:
14.1.1
All cars must be fitted with a fire extinguishing system which will discharge into the cockpit and into the engine compartment.
14.1.2 Any extinguishant listed in the Appendix to the regulations is permitted.
14.1.3 The quantity of extinguishant may vary according to the type of extinguishant used, a list of quantities may be found in the Appendix to these regulations.
14.1.4 When operated, the fire extinguishing system must discharge 95% of its contents at a constant pressure in no less than 10 seconds and no more than 30 seconds.
If more than one container with extinguishant is fitted, they must be released simultaneously.
14.1.5 Each pressure vessel must be equipped with a means of checking its pressure which may vary according to the type of extinguishant used. A list of pressures may be found in the Appendix to the regulations.
14.1.6 The following information must be visible on each container with extinguishant:
a) Type of extinguishant
b) Weight or volume of the extinguishant
c) Date the container must be checked which must be no more than two years after the date of filling.
14.1.7 All parts of the extinguishing system must be situated within the survival cell and all extinguishing equipment must withstand fire.
14.1.8 Any triggering system having its own source of energy is permitted, provided it is possible to operate all extinguishers should the main electrical circuits of the car fail.
The driver must be able to trigger the extinguishing system manually when seated normally with his safety belts fastened and the steering wheel in place.
Furthermore, a means of triggering from the outside must be combined with the circuit breaker switch described in Article 14.2.2. It must be marked with a letter "E" in red inside a white circle of at least 100mm diameter with a red edge.
14.1.9 The system must work in any position, even when the car is inverted.
14.1.10 All extinguisher nozzles must be suitable for the extinguishant and be installed in such a way that they are not directly pointed at the driver.
14.2 Master switch:
14.2.1
The driver, when seated normally with the safety belts fastened and the steering wheel in place, must be able to cut off the electrical circuits to the ignition, all fuel pumps and the rear light by means of a spark proof circuit breaker switch.
This switch must be located on the dashboard and must be clearly marked by a symbol showing a red spark in a white edged blue triangle.
14.2.2 There must also be an exterior switch, with a horizontal handle, which is capable of being operated from a distance by a hook. This switch must be situated at the base of the main roll over structure on the right hand side.
14.3 Rear view mirrors:
14.3.1
All cars must have at least two mirrors mounted so that the driver has visibility to the rear and both sides of the car.
14.3.2 The reflective surface of each mirror must be at least 150mm wide, this being maintained over a height of at least 50mm. Additionally, each corner may have a radius no greater than 10mm.
14.3.3 No part of the reflective surface may be less than 250mm from the car centre line or more than 750mm from the rear of the cockpit entry template.
14.3.4 The FIA technical delegate must be satisfied by a practical demonstration that the driver, when seated normally, can clearly define following vehicles.
For this purpose, the driver shall be required to identify any letter or number, 150mm high and 100mm wide, placed anywhere on boards behind the car, the positions of which are detailed below:
Height: From 400mm to 1000mm from the ground.
Width: 2000mm either side of the centre line of the car.
Position: 10m behind the rear axle line of the car.
14.4 Safety belts:
It is mandatory to wear two shoulder straps, one abdominal strap and two straps between the legs. These straps must be securely fixed to the car and must comply with FIA standard 8853/98.
14.5 Rear light:
All cars must have a red light in working order throughout the Event which:
- has been supplied by an FIA designated manufacturer;
- faces rearwards at 90° to the car centre line and the reference plane;
- is clearly visible from the rear;
- is mounted nominally on the car centre line;
- is mounted 300mm (+/-5mm) above the reference plane;
- is no less than 595mm behind the rear wheel centre line measured parallel to the reference plane;
- can be switched on by the driver when seated normally in the car.
The two measurements above will be taken to the centre of the rear face of the light unit.
14.6 Headrests and head protection:
14.6.1
All cars must be equipped with three areas of padding for the driver's head which:
- are so arranged that they can be removed from the car as one part;
- are located by two horizontal pegs behind the driver's head and two fixings, which are clearly indicated and easily removable without tools, at the front corners;
- are made from a material which is suitable for the relevant ambient air temperature, details of approved materials and the temperature bands in which they should be used may be found in the Appendix to these regulations;
- are covered, in all areas where the driver's head is likely to make contact, with two plies of Aramid fibre/epoxy resin composite pre-preg material in plain weave 60gsm fabric with a cured resin content of 50% (+/-5%) by weight;
- are positioned so as to be the first point of contact for the driver's helmet in the event of an impact projecting his head towards them during an accident.
14.6.2 The first area of padding for the driver's head must be positioned behind him and be between 75mm and 90mm thick over an area of at least 40000mm². If necessary, and only for driver comfort, an additional piece of padding no greater than 10mm thick may be attached to this headrest provided it is made from a similar material which incorporates a low friction surface.
14.6.3 While he is seated normally the two further areas of padding for the driver's head must be positioned directly alongside and above the lower edge of his crash helmet.
Each of these must cover an area greater than 25000mm² when viewed from the side of the car and be no less than 95mm thick, this minimum thickness being maintained to the upper edges of the survival cell and over their entire length. The minimum thickness will be assessed perpendicular to the car centre line but a 10mm radius may be applied along their upper inboard edges.
If necessary, and only for driver comfort, an additional piece of padding no greater than 10mm thick may be attached to these headrests provided they are made from a similar material which incorporates a low friction surface.
14.6.4 Forward of the side areas of padding further cockpit padding must be provided on each side of the cockpit rim. The purpose of the additional padding is to afford protection to the driver's head in the event of an oblique frontal impact and must therefore be made from the same material as the other three areas of padding.
These extensions must:
- be symmetrically positioned about the car centre line and a continuation of the side areas of padding;
- be positioned with their upper surfaces at least as high as the survival cell over their entire length;
- have a radius on their upper inboard edge no greater than 10mm;
- be positioned in order that the distance between the two is no less than 320mm;
- be as high as practicable within the constraints of driver comfort.
14.6.5 All of the padding described above must be so installed that if movement of the driver's head, in any expected trajectory during an accident, were to compress the foam fully at any point, his helmet would not make contact with any structural part of the car.
Furthermore, for the benefit of rescue crews all of the padding described above must be installed using the system described in the Appendix to these regulations. The method of removal must also be clearly indicated.
14.6.6 No part of the padding described above may obscure sight of any part of the driver's helmet when he is seated normally and viewed from directly above the car.
14.6.7 In order to minimise the risk of leg injury during an accident, additional areas of padding must be fitted each side of, and above, the driver's legs.
These areas of padding must:
- be made from a material described in the Appendix to these regulations;
- be no less than 25mm thick over their entire area;
- cover the area situated between points lying 50mm behind the centre of the point at which the second roll structure test is carried out and 100mm behind the face of the rearmost pedal when in the inoperative position, as shown in Drawing 4;
- cover the area above the line A-A shown in Drawing 3.
14.7 Wheel retention:
All cars, whilst under their own power, must be fitted with devices which will retain any wheel in the event of it coming loose.
After the wheel nut is fastened, these devices must be manually fitted in a separate action to that of securing the wheel nut.
14.8 Seat fixing and removal:
14.8.1
In order that an injured driver may be removed from the car in his seat following an accident, all cars must be fitted with a seat which, if it is secured, must be done so with no more than two bolts. If bolts are used they must:
- be clearly indicated and easily accessible to rescue crews;
- be fitted vertically;
- be removable with the same tool for all Teams and which is issued to all rescue crews.
14.8.2 The seat must be equipped with receptacles which permit the fitting of belts to secure the driver and one which will permit the fitting of a head stabilisation device.
14.8.3 The seat must be removable without the need to cut or remove any of the seat belts.
14.8.4 Details of the tool referred to above, the belt receptacles and the head stabilisation device may be found in the Appendix to these regulations.
14.9 Head and neck supports :
No head and neck support worn by the driver may be less 25mm from any structural part of the car when he is seated in his normal driving position.