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Electrical systems

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.

ARTICLE 8 : ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
8.1 Software and electronics inspection :
8.1.1
Prior to the start of each season the complete electrical system on the car must be examined and all on board and communications software must be inspected by the FIA Technical Department.
The FIA must be notified of any changes prior to the Event at which such changes are intended to be implemented.
8.1.2 All re-programmable microprocessors must have a mechanism that allows the FIA to accurately identify the software version loaded.
Acceptable solutions to verify the programmed software may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
8.1.3 All electronic units containing a programmable device, and which are intended for use at an Event, must be presented to the FIA before each Event in order that they can be identified.
8.1.4 All on-car software versions must be registered with the FIA before use.
8.1.5 The FIA must be able to test the operation of any compulsory electronic safety systems at any time during an Event.
8.2 Control electronics :
8.2.1
All components of the power unit, gearbox, clutch and differential, in addition to all associated actuators, must be controlled by an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) which has been manufactured by an FIA designated supplier to a specification determined by the FIA.
The ECU may only be used with FIA approved software and may only be connected to the control system wiring loom, sensors and actuators in a manner specified by the FIA.
Additional information regarding the ECU software versions and setup may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
8.2.2 All control sensors, actuators and FIA monitoring sensors will be specified and homologated by the FIA. Details of the homologation process may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
Each and every component of the control system will be sealed and uniquely identified and their identities tracked through their life cycle.
These components and units may not be disassembled or modified in any way and seals and identifiers must remain intact and legible.
8.2.3 The control system wiring loom connectivity must be approved by the FIA.
All wiring looms must be built to ensure that each control sensor and each control actuator connected to the ECU is electrically isolated from logging-only sensors connected to either the ECU or a team data acquisition unit.
In general, there must be no active or passive electronic component in the control loom. Exceptions (e.g. termination resistors) must be approved by the FIA before use.
Additional wiring guidelines may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
8.2.4 If sensor faults or errors are detected by the driver or by the on-board software, back-up sensors may be used and different settings may be manually or automatically selected. However, any back-up sensor or new setting chosen in this way must not enhance the performance of the car. Any driver default turned on during the start lockout period may not be turned off before the end of that period.
8.2.5 Pneumatic valve pressure may only be controlled via a passive mechanical regulator or from the ECU and its operation will be monitored by the ECU.
8.3 Start systems :
8.3.1
Any system, the purpose and/or effect of which is to detect when a race start signal is given, is not permitted.
8.3.2 The ECU will implement a “lockout” period after each race start or pit stop during which a number of power unit and clutch related functions will be frozen or disabled. Details of the strategy may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
8.4 Data acquisition :
8.4.1
To assist scrutineering, the FIA requires unlimited access to the following ECU information before, during and after any track session :
a) Application parameter configurations.
b) Logged data and events.
c) Real-time telemetry data and events.
Throughout the Event, the logging memory and events buffer may only be cleared by an FIA engineer.
The FIA must have the ability to connect to the ECU via a jump battery using an FIA laptop. The teams should make a jump battery available at all times during the Event.
The teams should transfer the real-time telemetry data and events on the FIA network as requested by, and in the format defined by, the FIA.
Prior to the race, the ECU data logger must be configured in such a way that allows logging of data for at least two hours and fifteen minutes without exceeding the size of the logger memory.
8.4.2 Any data acquisition system, telemetry system or associated sensors additional to those provided by the ECU and ADR must be physically separate and electrically isolated from any control electronics with the exception of :
a) The primary regulated voltage supply.
b) The car system ground.
c) Communication links to the ECU, telemetry unit and ADR.
d) Power supplies, provided they are not used to power any control electronics, control sensors or actuators.
e) Time synchronisation lines.
f) Power unit synchronisation lines.
g) An umbilical loom whose connector will remain disconnected when the car is moving.
No junction box or break-out box may be shared between the ECU system and a team data acquisition system.
8.5 Telemetry :
8.5.1
Telemetry systems must operate at frequencies which have been approved by the FIA.
8.5.2 Pit to car telemetry is prohibited.
8.6 Driver controls and displays :
8.6.1
Any electronic modules used for driver information displays and switch inputs must be supplied by an FIA designated supplier to a specification determined by the FIA and be suitably housed by each team.
8.6.2 Any single control device, including but not limited to switch, button, paddle or pedal, used by the driver must be connected to a single analogue or digital input of the ECU.
Exceptions will be considered to handle the following :
a) A spare clutch paddle sensor.
b) A spare accelerator pedal sensor.
c) A separate "kick-down" sensor which indicates that the accelerator pedal has been deliberately depressed past full travel.
d) Multiplexed shift signals.
e) A spare brake pressure and pedal sensor.
Any interface between such driver operated devices and the ECU must be approved by the FIA.
8.6.3 Any alteration of the driver's controls may only be commanded by direct, deliberate and primary driver actions.
The logged raw signals from the ECU inputs must provide a true representation of the driver's actions.
8.7 Driver radio :
Other than authorised connections to the FIA ECU, any voice radio communication system between car and pits must be stand-alone and must not transmit or receive other data. All such communications must be open and accessible to both the FIA and broadcasters.
8.8 Accident data recorders (ADR) :
8.8.1
The recorder must be fitted and operated :
a) In accordance with the instructions of the FIA.
b) Symmetrically about the car centre line and with its top facing upwards.
c) With each of its 12 edges parallel to an axis of the car.
d) Less than 200mm above the reference plane.
e) In a position within the cockpit which is readily accessible at all times from within the cockpit without the need to remove skid block or floor.
f) In order that the entire unit lies between 30% and 50% of the wheelbase of the car.
g) Via anti-vibration mountings giving a clearance of 5mm to all other objects.
h) With its connectors facing forwards.
i) In order that its status light is visible when the driver is seated normally.
j) In order that the download connector is easily accessible when the driver is seated normally and without the need to remove bodywork.
8.8.2 The recorder must be connected to two external 500g accelerometers which are solidly bolted to the survival cell, on the car centre line, using four 4mm bolts. One must be as close to the nominal car centre of gravity as practical and the other as far forward as possible inside the survival cell. The forward accelerometer may be mounted to the underside of the top surface provided it is solidly bolted to a structural part of the survival cell.
8.8.3 The recorder must be powered from a nominally 12V supply such that its internal battery can be recharged at all times when the car's electronic systems are powered and when the car systems are switched off, but a jump battery or umbilical is connected.
8.8.4 An ADR and two accelerometers must be fitted to every car at all times during an Event and at all tests attended by more than one team.
8.8.5 Details of the connections to the ADR may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
8.9 Track signal information display :
All cars must be fitted with red, blue and yellow cockpit lights the purpose of which are to give drivers information concerning track signals or conditions. The lights must be LEDs each with a minimum diameter of 5mm and fitted directly in the driver's normal line of sight.
Details of the light control system, which must be fitted to every car, may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
8.10 Medical warning system :
In order to give rescue crews an immediate indication of accident severity each car must be fitted with a warning light which is connected to the FIA data logger.
The light must face upwards and be recessed into the top of the survival cell no more than 150mm from the car centre line and the front of the cockpit opening and as near to the clutch disengagement system, as described in Article 9.4, as is practical.
Details of the light and its control system may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
8.11 Installation of electrical systems or components :
8.11.1
Exceptionally, each car may be equipped with a maximum of five test sensor installations, which do not comply with the Technical Regulations, during P1 and P2, provided :
a) They could not materially affect the outcome any of the impact tests described in Articles 16.2, 16.3 and 16.4.
b) They comply with Articles 3.3, 3.4.1, 3.6, 3.14.1 and 3.14.2.
c) They do not reduce or affect driver visibility.
d) They do not obstruct on-board camera views.
Any such test sensor installations do not need to be homologated.
The FIA technical delegate must be notified of any intended test sensor installations prior to the Event at which they are first used.
8.11.2 Competitors must be notified of any changes to the installation instructions for any FIA specified systems or components before 30 June of the previous season.