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Impact testing

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.

ARTICLE 16 : IMPACT TESTING
16.1 Conditions applicable to all impact tests :
16.1.1
All tests must be carried out in accordance with FIA Test Procedure 01/00, in the presence of an FIA technical delegate and by using measuring equipment which has been calibrated to the satisfaction of the FIA technical delegate. A copy of the test procedure may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
16.1.2 Any significant modification introduced into any of the structures tested shall require that part to pass a further test.
16.2 Frontal test 1:
All parts which could materially affect the outcome of the test must be fitted to the test structure which must be solidly fixed to the trolley through its engine mounting points but not in such a way as to increase its impact resistance.
The fuel tank must be fitted and may contain water.
A dummy weighing at least 75kg must be fitted with safety belts described in Article 14.4 fastened. However, with the safety belts unfastened, the dummy must be able to move forwards freely in the cockpit.
The extinguishers, as described in Article 14.1 must also be fitted.
For the purposes of this test, the total weight of the trolley and test structure shall be 780kg (+1%/-0) and the velocity of impact not less than 15 metres/second.
The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the impact either :
a) The peak deceleration over the first 150mm of deformation does not exceed 10g.
b) The peak deceleration over the first 60kJ energy absorption does not exceed 20g.
c) The average deceleration of the trolley does not exceed 40g.
d) The peak deceleration in the chest of the dummy does not exceed 60g for more than a cumulative 3ms, this being the resultant of data from three axes.
Or :
a) The peak force over the first 150mm of deformation does not exceed 75kN.
b) The peak force over the first 60kJ energy absorption does not exceed 150kN.
c) The average deceleration of the trolley does not exceed 40g.
d) The peak deceleration in the chest of the dummy does not exceed 60g for more than a cumulative 3ms, this being the resultant of data from three axes.
Furthermore, there must be no damage to the survival cell or to the mountings of the safety belts or fire extinguishers.
This test may be carried out on any survival cell provided it has been successfully subjected to the tests described in Articles 17.2, 17.3 and 18.2-5. The test must however be carried out on the survival cell and frontal impact absorbing structure which was subjected to the test described in Article 18.6.
16.3 Frontal test 2 :
A 50mm (+/-1mm) thick aluminium plate should be attached to the front bulkhead of the survival cell through the mounting points of the frontal impact absorbing structure. The plate should :
a) Measure 375mm (+/-1mm) wide x 375mm (+/-1mm) high.
b) Be fitted symmetrically about the car centre line.
c) Be fitted in a vertical sense in order to ensure force distribution is similar to that measured during the first frontal test.
d) Have four M10 x 30mm holes in the outer face arranged in a 125mm square pattern about its geometric centre. The test laboratory will then fit a 5mm thick 300mm x 275mm steel plate to these holes using a 5mm washer stack.
All parts which could materially affect the outcome of the test must be fitted to the test structure which must be solidly fixed to the trolley through its engine mounting points but not in such a way as to increase its impact resistance.
The fuel tank must be fitted and must be full of water.
A dummy weighing at least 75kg must be fitted with safety belts described in Article 14.4 fastened. However, with the safety belts unfastened, the dummy must be able to move forwards freely in the cockpit.
For the purposes of this test, the total weight of the trolley and test structure shall be 900kg (+1%/-0) and the velocity of impact not less than 15 metres/second.
The impact wall must be fitted with six 60kN crush tubes which develop a combined 360kN as follows :
a) 2 x 60kN from T-zero to T-end, directed into the two lower M10 attachment points.
b) 2 x 60kN from T-100mm to T-end, directed into the two upper M10 attachment points.
c) 2 x 60kN from T-200mm to T-end, directed into the sled.
The resistance of the test structure must be such that following the impact there is no damage to the survival cell or to the mountings of the safety belts.
This test may be carried out on any survival cell provided it has been successfully subjected to the tests described in Articles 17.2, 17.3 and 18.2-5.
Specifications of the crush tubes and test arrangement may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
16.4 Rear test :
All parts which will be fitted behind the rear face of the engine and which could materially affect the outcome of the test must be fitted to the test structure. If suspension members are to be mounted on the structure they must be fitted for the test. The structure and the gearbox must be solidly fixed to the ground and a solid object, having a mass of 780kg (+1%/-0) and travelling at a velocity of not less than 11 metres/second, will be projected into it.
The object used for this test must be flat, measure 450mm (+/-3mm) wide by 550mm (+/-3mm) high and may have a 10mm radius on all edges. Its lower edge must be at the same level as the car reference plane (+/-3mm) and must be so arranged to strike the structure vertically and at 90„a to the car centre line.
During the test, the striking object may not pivot in any axis and the crash structure may be supported in any way provided this does not increase the impact resistance of the parts being tested.
The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the impact :
a) The peak deceleration over the first 225mm of deformation does not exceed 20g.
b) The maximum deceleration does not exceed 20g for more than a cumulative 15ms, this being measured only in the direction of impact.
Furthermore, all structural damage must be contained within the area behind the rear wheel centre line.
This test must be carried out on the rear impact absorbing structure which was subjected to the test described in Article 18.8.
16.5 Steering column test :
The parts referred to in Article 10.4.4 must be fitted to a representative test structure; any other parts which could materially affect the outcome of the test must also be fitted. The test structure must be solidly fixed to the ground and a solid object, having a mass of 8kg (+1%/-0) and travelling at a velocity of not less than 7metres/second, will be projected into it.
The object used for this test must be hemispherical with a diameter of 165mm (+/-1mm).
For the test, the centre of the hemisphere must strike the structure at the centre of the steering wheel along the same axis as the main part of the steering column.
During the test the striking object may not pivot in any axis and the test structure may be supported in any way provided this does not increase the impact resistance of the parts being tested.
The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the impact the peak deceleration of the object does not exceed 80g for more than a cumulative 3ms, this being measured only in the direction of impact.