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Wheels and tyres

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.

ARTICLE 12: WHEELS AND TYRES
12.1 Location:

Wheels must be external to the bodywork in plan view, with the rear aerodynamic device removed.
12.2 Number of wheels:
The number of wheels is fixed at four.
12.3 Wheel material:
Wheels must be made from AZ70 or AZ80 magnesium alloys.
12.4 Wheel dimensions :
12.4.1
Complete wheel width must lie between 305mm and 355mm when fitted to the front of the car and between 365mm and 380mm when fitted to the rear.
12.4.2 Complete wheel diameter must not exceed 660mm when fitted with dry-weather tyres or 670mm when fitted with wet weather tyres.
12.4.3 Complete wheel width and diameter will be measured horizontally at axle height, with the wheel held in a vertical position and when fitted with new tyres inflated to 1.4 bar.
12.4.4 Wheel dimensions and geometry must comply with the following specifications :
a) The minimum wheel thickness is 3.0mm.
b) The minimum bead thickness is 4.0mm (measured from hump to outer edge of the lip).
c) The ETRTO standard bead profile is prescribed.
d) The tyre mounting widths are 12” (304.8mm +/-0.5mm) front; 13.7” (348.0mm +/-0.5mm) rear.
e) The wheel lip thickness is 9mm (+/-1mm).
f) The outer lip diameter is 358mm (+/-1mm).
g) A lip recess of maximum 1.0mm depth between a radius of 165mm and a radius of 173mm from wheel axis is permitted (for wheel branding, logo, part number, etc.).
h) With the exception of the wheel lip, only a single turned profile with a maximum thickness of 8mm is allowed radially outboard of the exclusion zones specified in Article 12.4.5.
i) The design of the wheel must meet the general requirements of the tyre supplier for the mounting and dismounting of tyres including allowance for sensors and valves.
j) The wheel design cannot be handed between left and right designs.
12.4.5 No wheel material is permitted in the following exclusion zones :
a) A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 115mm positioned with its inner face lying in the same plane as the inboard face of the front wheel.
b) A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 25mm positioned with its outer face lying in the same plane as the outboard face of the front wheel.
c) A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 100mm positioned with its inner face lying in the same plane as the inboard face of the rear wheel.
d) A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 30mm positioned with its outer face lying in the same plane as the outboard face of the rear wheel.
12.4.6 When viewed perpendicular to the plane formed by the outer face of the wheel and between the diameters of 120mm and 270mm the wheel may have an area of no greater than 24,000mm2.
12.5 Supply of tyres :
12.5.1
All tyres must be used as supplied by the manufacturer, any modification or treatment such as cutting, grooving or the application of solvents or softeners is prohibited. This applies to dry, intermediate and wet-weather tyres.
12.5.2 If, in the opinion of the appointed tyre supplier and FIA technical delegate, the nominated tyre specification proves to be technically unsuitable, the stewards may authorise the use of additional tyres to a different specification.
12.5.3 If, in the interests of maintaining current levels of circuit safety, the FIA deems it necessary to reduce tyre grip, it shall introduce such rules as the tyre supplier may advise or, in the absence of advice which achieves the FIA's objectives, specify the maximum permissible contact areas for front and rear tyres.
12.6 Specification of tyres :
12.6.1
An intermediate tyre is one which has been designed for use on a wet or damp track.
All intermediate tyres must, when new, have a contact area which does not exceed 280cm² when fitted to the front of the car and 440cm² when fitted to the rear. Contact areas will be measured over any square section of the tyre which is normal to and symmetrical about the tyre centre line and which measures 200mm x 200mm when fitted to the front of the car and 250mm x 250mm when fitted to the rear. For the purposes of establishing conformity, void areas which are less than 2.5mm in depth will be deemed to be contact areas.
12.6.2 A wet-weather tyre is one which has been designed for use on a wet track.
All wet-weather tyres must, when new, have a contact area which does not exceed 240cm² when fitted to the front of the car and 375cm² when fitted to the rear. Contact areas will be measured over any square section of the tyre which is normal to and symmetrical about the tyre centre line and which measures 200mm x 200mm when fitted to the front of the car and 250mm x 250mm when fitted to the rear. For the purposes of establishing conformity, void areas which are less than 5.0mm in depth will be deemed to be contact areas.
12.6.3 Tyre specifications will be determined by the FIA no later than 1 September of the previous season. Once determined in this way, the specification of the tyres will not be changed during the Championship season without the agreement of at least 70 percent of the competing teams.
Notwithstanding the above, the FIA may decide to change the specification during the Championship season for safety reasons without notice or delay.
12.7 Treatment of tyres :
12.7.1
Tyres may only be inflated with air or nitrogen.
12.7.2 Any process the intent of which is to reduce the amount of moisture in the tyre and/or in its inflation gas is forbidden.
12.7.3 The only permitted type of tyre heating devices are blankets which use resistive heating elements. The heating elements may only act upon the outer tyre surface.
12.8 Wheel assembly :
12.8.1
The only parts which may be physically attached to the wheel in addition to the tyre are surface treatments for appearance and protection, valves for filling and discharging the tyre, wheel fasteners, balance weights, drive pegs, tyre pressure and temperature monitoring devices and spacers on the inboard mounting face of identical specification on all wheels for the same axle.
12.8.2 The wheel must be attached to the car with a single fastener. The outer diameter of the fastener must not exceed 105mm and the axial length must not exceed 75mm. The wheel fastener may not attach or mount any part to the car except the wheel assembly described in Article 12.8.1.
12.8.3 A complete wheel must contain a single fixed internal gas volume. No valves, bleeds or permeable membranes are permitted other than to inflate or deflate the tyre whilst the car is stationary.
12.8.4 Devices which are used to fit or remove wheel fasteners may only be powered by compressed air or nitrogen.
Any sensor systems may only act passively.