Power Unit and ERS
Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.
ARTICLE 5 : POWER UNIT
5.1 Engine specification :
5.1.1 Only 4-stroke engines with reciprocating pistons are permitted.
5.1.2 Engine cubic capacity must be 1600cc (+0/-10cc).
5.1.3 Crankshaft rotational speed must not exceed 15000rpm.
5.1.4 Fuel mass flow must not exceed 100kg/h.
5.1.5 Below 10500rpm the fuel mass flow must not exceed Q (kg/h) = 0.009 N(rpm)+ 5.5.
5.1.6 Pressure charging may only be effected by the use of a sole single stage compressor linked to a sole single stage exhaust turbine by a shaft assembly parallel to the engine crankshaft and within 25mm of the car centre line. The shaft must be designed so as to ensure that the shaft assembly, the compressor and the turbine always rotate about a common axis and at the same angular velocity, an electrical motor generator (MGU-H) may be directly coupled to it.
5.1.7 All engines must have six cylinders arranged in a 90° “V” configuration and the normal section of each cylinder must be circular.
All six cylinders must be of equal capacity.
5.1.8 Engines must have two inlet and two exhaust valves per cylinder.
Only reciprocating poppet valves with axial displacement are permitted.
The sealing interface between the moving valve component and the stationary engine component must be circular.
5.1.9 Engine exhaust gases may only exit the cylinder head through outlets outboard of the cylinder bore centre line and not from within the “V” centre.
5.1.10 The crankshaft may only have three connecting rod bearing journals.
5.2 Other means of propulsion and energy recovery :
5.2.1 The use of any device, other than the engine described in 5.1 above, and one MGU-K, to propel the car, is not permitted.
5.2.2 Energy flows, power and ES state of charge limits are defined in the energy flow diagram shown in Appendix 3 of these regulations.
When the car is on the track a lap will be measured on each successive crossing of the timing line, however, when entering the pits the lap will end, and the next one will begin, at the start of the pit lane (as defined in the F1 Sporting Regulations).
Electrical DC measurements will be used to verify that the energy and power requirements are being respected.
A fixed efficiency correction of 0.95 will be used to monitor the maximum MGU-K power.
5.2.3 The MGU-K must be solely and permanently mechanically linked to the powertrain before the main clutch. This mechanical link must be of fixed speed ratio to the engine crankshaft.
The rotational speed of the MGU-K may not exceed 50,000rpm.
The maximum torque of the MGU-K may not exceed 200Nm. The torque will be referenced to the crankshaft speed and the fixed efficiency correction defined in Article 5.2.2 will be used to monitor the maximum MGU-K torque.
The laminate thickness of the MGU-K may not be less than 0.05mm.
5.2.4 The MGU-H must be solely mechanically linked to the exhaust turbine of a pressure charging system. This mechanical link must be of fixed speed ratio to the exhaust turbine and may be clutched.
The rotational speed of the MGU-H may not exceed 125,000rpm.
5.2.5 Cars must be fitted with homologated sensors which provide all necessary signals to the FIA data logger in order to verify the requirements above are being respected.
5.3 Power unit dimensions :
5.3.1 Cylinder bore diameter must be 80mm (+/- 0.1mm).
5.3.2 The crankshaft centre line must lie on the car centre line and 90mm (+/-0.5mm) above the reference plane. The power unit may only transmit torque to the gearbox by means of a single output shaft that must be co-axial with the crankshaft. The output shaft must rotate clockwise when viewed from the front of the car.
5.3.3 Valve stem diameter must not be less than 4.95mm.
5.3.4 All elements of the power unit specified in the relevant column of the table in Appendix 2 of these regulations must be installed in the union of the volumes that exist between two vertical planes normal to the car centre line separated by 700mm and in a box 150mm long, 250mm wide and 800mm high which lies symmetrically about the car centre line immediately ahead of the front vertical plane.
5.3.5 Power unit mountings may only comprise six M12 studs for connection to the survival cell and six M12 studs for connection to the transmission. All studs must be used and may be fitted on the survival cell, power unit or transmission. The installed end of the studs must be M12 and the free end may be a different diameter.
The mounting faces of the studs for connection to the survival cell must lie on the forward of the two planes described in Article 5.3.4 and be located at Y215/Z15(2), Y340/Z260(2) and Y175/Z420(2).
The mounting faces of the studs for connection to the transmission must lie on one vertical plane normal to the car centre line and be located at Y100/Z15(2), Y150/Z140(2) and Y255/Z345(2).
A tolerance of +/- 0.2mm will be permitted on all of the above dimensions, all dimensions refer to the centre of the studs.
The distance between the two planes is fixed at 480mm (+/-0.2mm).
Any part which provides an additional load path from the survival cell to the gearbox, with a connection to the power unit, may only do so if this is incidental to its principal purpose.
5.3.6 The ES must be installed wholly within the survival cell.
5.4 Weight and centre of gravity :
5.4.1 The overall weight of the power unit must be a minimum of 145kg.
5.4.2 The centre of gravity of the power unit may not lie less than 200mm above the reference plane.
5.4.3 The total weight of the part of the ES that stores energy, i.e. the cells (including any clamping plates) and electrical connections between cells, must be no less than 20kg and must not exceed 25kg.
5.4.4 When establishing conformity with Articles 5.4.1, 5.4.2 and Appendix 4 of the F1 Sporting Regulations, the homologated power unit perimeter will be defined in accordance with the table shown in Appendix 2 of these regulations.
5.5 Power unit torque control :
5.5.1 The only means by which the driver may control acceleration torque to the driven wheels is via a single chassis mounted foot (accelerator) pedal.
5.5.2 Designs which allow specific points along the accelerator pedal travel range to be identified by the driver or assist him to hold a position are not permitted.
5.5.3 The accelerator pedal shaping map in the ECU may only be linked to the type of the tyres fitted to the car : one map for use with dry-weather tyres and one map for use with intermediate or wet-weather tyres.
5.5.4 At any given engine speed the driver torque demand map must be monotonically increasing for an increase in accelerator pedal position.
5.5.5 At any given accelerator pedal position and above 4,000rpm, the driver torque demand map must not have a gradient of less than – (minus) 0.045Nm/rpm.
5.5.6 The power unit shall achieve the torque demanded by the FIA standard software within a period of [TBD]ms.
5.5.7 Homologated sensors must be fitted which measure the torque generated at the power unit output shaft and the torques supplied to each driveshaft. These signals must be provided to the ECU.
5.6 Engine control :
5.6.1 The maximum delay allowed, computed from the respective signals as recorded by the ADR or ECU, between the accelerator pedal position input signal and the corresponding output demand being achieved is 50ms.
5.6.2 Teams may be required to demonstrate the accuracy of the engine configurations used by the ECU.
5.6.3 Engine control must not be influenced by clutch position, movement or operation.
5.6.4 The idle speed control target may not exceed 4,000rpm.
5.6.5 A number of engine protections are available in the ECU.
A minimum of nine seconds hold time should be configured for the power unit protections enabled during qualifying and race. The configuration of the air tray fire detection and throttle failsafe are exceptionally unrestricted in order to allow each team to achieve the best level of safety.
5.7 Engine high rev limits :
Engine high rev limits may vary for differing conditions provided all are contained within a band of 750rpm. However, a lower rev limit may be used when :
a) The gearbox is in neutral.
b) Stall prevention is active.
c) The driver clutch request is greater than 95% of the total available travel of the driver clutch actuation device, used only to protect the engine following a driver error.
d) An engine protection is active.
e) The bite point finder strategy is active.
f) The safety car is deployed or during the formation lap.
Except for the above conditions, power unit actuators may not be used to artificially control the power unit speed or alter the power unit response in a rev range more than 750rpm below the final rev limit.
5.8 Exhaust systems :
5.8.1 With the exception of incidental leakage through joints (either into or out of the system), all (and only) the fluids entering the compressor inlet must exit from the engine exhaust system.
5.8.2 Engine exhaust systems must have only a single tailpipe exit which must be rearward facing and through which all exhaust gases must pass.
5.8.3 The cross-sectional area of the exhaust exit at the rearmost point of the tailpipe must lie between 7500mm2 and 14000mm2.
5.8.4 The last 150mm of any tailpipe must in its entirety :
a) Form a thin-walled unobstructed right circular cylinder with its axis +/- 5° to the car centre line when viewed from above the car and between 0° and 5° (tail up) to the reference plane when viewed from the side of the car. The entire circumference of the exit should lie on a single plane normal to the tailpipe axis and be located at the rearmost extremity of the last 150mm of the tailpipe.
b) Be located between 350mm and 550mm above the reference plane.
c) Be located no more than 100mm from the car centre line.
d) Be positioned in order that the entire circumference of the exit of the tailpipe lies between two vertical planes normal to the car centre line and which lie between 170mm and 185mm rearward of the rear wheel centre line.
5.8.5 There must be no bodywork lying within a right circular cylinder which :
a) Shares a common axis with that of the last 150mm of the tailpipe.
b) Has a diameter 30mm greater than the tailpipe.
c) Starts at the exit of the tailpipe and extends rearwards as far as a point 600mm behind the rear wheel centre line.
5.9 Variable geometry systems :
5.9.1 With the exception of devices needed for control of pressure charging systems, variable geometry exhaust systems are not permitted. No form of variable geometry turbine (VGT) or variable nozzle turbine (VNT) or any device to adjust the gas throat section at the inlet to the turbine wheel is permitted.
5.9.2 Variable valve timing and variable valve lift profile systems are not permitted.
5.9.3 Variable length intake trumpets are forbidden in 2014 only.
5.10 Fuel systems :
5.10.1 The pressure of the fuel supplied to the injectors may not exceed 500bar. Only approved parts may be used and the list of parts approved by the FIA, and the approval procedure, may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
5.10.2 There may only be one direct injector per cylinder and no injectors are permitted upstream of the intake valves or downstream of the exhaust valves. Only approved parts may be used and the list of parts approved by the FIA, and the approval procedure, may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
5.10.3 Homologated sensors must be fitted which directly measure the pressure, the temperature and the flow of the fuel supplied to the injectors, these signals must be supplied to the FIA data logger.
5.10.4 Only one homologated FIA fuel flow sensor may be fitted to the car which must be placed wholly within the fuel tank.
5.10.5 Any device, system or procedure the purpose and/or effect of which is to increase the flow rate after the measurement point is prohibited.
5.11 Ignition systems :
5.11.1 Ignition is only permitted by means of a single ignition coil and single spark plug per cylinder. No more than five sparks per cylinder per engine cycle are permitted.
The use of plasma, laser or other high frequency ignition techniques is forbidden.
Only approved ignition coils may be used and the list of parts approved by the FIA, and the approval procedure, may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
5.11.2 Only conventional spark plugs that function by high tension electrical discharge across an exposed gap are permitted.
Spark plugs are not subject to the materials restrictions described in Articles 5.16 and 5.17.
5.12 Energy Recovery System (ERS) :
5.12.1 The system will be considered shut down when no high voltage can be present on any external or accessible part of the ERS.
The shutdown process must take no longer than two seconds from activation.
It must be possible to shut down the ERS via the following means :
a) The switch required by Article 14.2.1.
b) The switches required by Article 14.2.2.
c) The switch or button required by Article 9.4.
5.12.2 The ERS must shut down when the ECU required by Article 8.2 initiates an anti-stall engine shut off.
5.12.3 All cars must be fitted with an ERS status light which :
a) Has been supplied by an FIA designated manufacturer and fitted to the car in accordance with the instructions in the Appendix to these regulations.
b) Is in working order throughout the Event even if the main hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical systems on the car have failed.
c) Remains powered for at least 15 minutes if the car comes to rest with its engine stopped.
d) Is marked with a “HIGH VOLTAGE” symbol according to ISO3864 of at least 30mm along the triangle side and no more than 50mm away from the lights.
5.12.4 All cars must provide signals regarding the car operating and insulation states to the ADR in order to facilitate control of the ERS status light.
5.12.5 The maximum peak voltage on the car must never exceed 1000V.
5.13 Engine ancillaries :
All coolant pumps, oil pumps, scavenge pumps, oil/air separators, hydraulic pumps and fuel pumps delivering more than 10bar must be mechanically driven directly from the engine and/or MGU-K with a fixed speed ratio.
5.14 Engine intake air :
5.14.1 With the exception of incidental leakage through joints or cooling ducts in the inlet system (either into or out of the system), all air entering the engine must enter the bodywork through a maximum of two inlets which are located :
a) Between the front of the cockpit entry template and a point 500mm forward of the rear wheel centre line longitudinally.
b) No less than 200mm above the reference plane vertically.
c) On vertical cross-sections normal to the car centre line.
Furthermore, any such inlets must be visible in their entirety when viewed from the front of the car and without the driver seated in the car.
5.14.2 Other than engine sump breather gases, exhaust gas recirculation, and fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, the spraying of any substance into the engine intake air is forbidden.
5.15 Materials and Construction – Definitions :
5.15.1 X Based Alloy (e.g. Ni based alloy) – X must be the most abundant element in the alloy on a %w/w basis. The minimum possible weight percent of the element X must always be greater than the maximum possible of each of the other individual elements present in the alloy.
5.15.2 X-Y Based Alloy (e.g. Al-Cu based alloy) – X must be the most abundant element as in Article 5.15.1 above. In addition element Y must be the second highest constituent (%w/w), after X in the alloy. The mean content of Y and all other alloying elements must be used to determine the second highest alloying element (Y).
5.15.3 Intermetallic Materials (e.g. TiAl, NiAl, FeAl, Cu3Au, NiCo) – These are materials where the material is based upon intermetallic phases, i.e. the matrix of the material consists of greater than 50%v/v intermetallic phase(s). An intermetallic phase is a solid solution between two or more metals exhibiting either partly ionic or covalent, or metallic bonding with a long range order, in a narrow range of composition around the stoichiometric proportion.
5.15.4 Composite Materials – These are materials where a matrix material is reinforced by either a continuous or discontinuous phase. The matrix can be metallic, ceramic, polymeric or glass based. The reinforcement can be present as long fibres (fibre length greater than 10mm) or short fibres, whiskers and particles (discontinuous reinforcement). Nanoscale reinforced materials are to be considered as composites. (a reinforcement is considered to be nanoscale if any dimension of the reinforcement is less than 100nm.)
5.15.5 Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) – These are composite materials with a metallic matrix containing a phase of greater than 2%v/v which is not soluble in the liquid phase of the metallic matrix.
5.15.6 Ceramic Materials (e.g. Al2O3, SiC, B4C, Ti5Si3, SiO2, Si3N4) – These are inorganic, non-metallic solids.
5.16 Materials and construction – General :
5.16.1 Unless explicitly permitted for a specific application, the following materials may not be used anywhere on the power unit :
a) Magnesium based alloys.
b) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's).
c) Intermetallic materials.
d) Alloys containing more than 5% by weight of Iridium or Rhenium.
e) Copper based alloys containing more than 2.75% Beryllium.
f) Any other alloy class containing more than 0.25% Beryllium.
g) Tungsten base alloys.
h) Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites.
5.16.2 The restrictions in Article 5.16.1 do not apply to coatings provided the total coating thickness does not exceed 25% of the section thickness of the underlying base material in all axes. In all cases, other than under Article 5.16.3(b), the relevant coating must not exceed 0.8mm.
5.16.3 The restrictions in Article 5.16.1(h) do not apply to the following applications :
a) Any component whose primary purpose is for electrical or thermal insulation.
b) Any coating whose primary purpose is for thermal insulation of the outside of the exhaust system.
5.16.4 Magnesium based alloys, where permitted, must be available on a non-exclusive basis and under normal commercial terms to all competitors. Only those alloys covered by ISO16220 and approved by the FIA may be used.
5.17 Materials and construction – Components :
5.17.1 Pistons must respect Article 5.16. Titanium alloys are not permitted.
5.17.2 Piston pins must be manufactured from an iron based alloy and must be machined from a single piece of material.
5.17.3 Connecting rods must be manufactured from iron or titanium based alloys and must be machined from a single piece of material with no welded or joined assemblies (other than a bolted big end cap or an interfered small end bush).
5.17.4 Crankshafts must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
No welding is permitted between the front and rear main bearing journals.
No material with a density exceeding 18,400 kg/m3 may be assembled to the crankshaft.
These parts assembled to the crankshaft may be manufactured in a Tungsten based material.
5.17.5 Camshafts must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
Each camshaft and lobes must be machined from a single piece of material.
No welding is allowed between the front and rear bearing journals.
5.17.6 Valves must be manufactured from intermetallic materials or from alloys based on Aluminium, Iron, Nickel, Cobalt or Titanium. However, hollow structures cooled by sodium, lithium or similar are also permitted.
In addition, the restrictions detailed in Articles 5.16.2 and 15.1.2 do not apply to valves.
5.17.7 Reciprocating and rotating components :
a) Reciprocating and rotating components must not be manufactured from graphitic matrix, metal matrix composites or ceramic materials, this restriction does not apply to the clutch and any seals.
b) Rolling elements of rolling element bearings must be manufactured from an iron based alloy or from a ceramic material.
c) All timing gears between the crankshaft and camshafts (including hubs) must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
d) High pressure fuel pumps elements may be manufactured from a ceramic material.
e) Torsional damper elements may be manufactured in a Tungsten based material.
5.17.8 Static components :
a) Other than inserts within them, engine crankcases including sump and cylinder heads must be manufactured from cast or wrought aluminium or iron alloys.
No composite materials or metal matrix composites are permitted either for the whole component or locally.
b) Other than parts listed in a) above, magnesium based alloys are permitted for static parts which may not be changed without incurring a penalty under Article 5.22.
c) Any metallic structure whose primary or secondary function is to retain lubricant or coolant within the engine must be manufactured from an iron based alloy, an aluminium alloy or a magnesium based alloy if permitted by Article 5.17.8(b).
d) All threaded fasteners, other than the two exceptions below, must be manufactured from an alloy based on Cobalt, Iron or Nickel. The exceptions are :
i) Fasteners whose primary function requires them to be an electrical insulator may be manufactured from ceramic or polymeric materials.
ii) Fasteners that are used in electronic control units may be manufactured from aluminium alloys.
Composite materials are not permitted.
e) Valve seat inserts, valve guides and any other bearing component may be manufactured from metallic infiltrated pre-forms with other phases which are not used for reinforcement.
f) Ballast may be manufactured in a Tungsten based material.
5.18 Materials and construction – Pressure charging and exhaust systems :
5.18.1 All components of the power unit exhaust system, (from the engine exhaust flange up to and including turbine housing or waste-gate exit housing) that are in contact with the main exhaust gas flow must be manufactured from a Cobalt, Iron or Nickel based alloy. Any gaskets or seals are excluded from this restriction.
5.18.2 Any rotating and reciprocating component in the compressor (from compressor inlet to compressor outlet) must be manufactured from an aluminium, titanium or iron based alloy.
5.18.3 Static components that are neither in the exhaust system nor in the compressor line must be manufactured from iron based alloys, aluminium alloys or titanium alloys.
5.18.4 The compressor housing (from compressor inlet to compressor outlet) must be manufactured from aluminium or magnesium based alloys.
5.18.5 Measures must be taken to ensure that in the event of failure of the turbine wheel any resulting significant debris is contained within the car.
5.19 Materials and construction – Energy recovery, storage systems and electronic systems :
5.19.1 All metallic casings for the energy recovery and storage systems must be manufactured in iron, aluminium or titanium based alloys and must comply with all aspects of Article 5.16 except for power electronic cooling base plate where metal matrix composite may be used.
5.19.2 All metallic casings for electronic systems, with the exception of metallic casings for the energy recovery and storage systems, must be manufactured in iron, aluminium, titanium or magnesium based alloys.
5.19.3 Energy storage devices are not subject to Articles 5.16.1a), b), c) and h) nor to 5.16.2.
5.19.4 Permanent magnets in electrical machines are not subject to Articles 5.16.1 a), b), c) or h) nor to Article 5.16.2.
5.19.5 Electronic components contained inside electronic units are not subject to any material restriction.
5.20 Starting the engine :
A supplementary device temporarily connected to the car may be used to start the engine both on the grid and in the pits.
5.21 Stall prevention systems :
If a car is equipped with a stall prevention system, and in order to avoid the possibility of a car involved in an accident being left with the engine running, all such systems must be configured to stop the engine no more than ten seconds after activation.
The sole purpose of such systems is to prevent the engine stalling when a driver loses control of the car. If the car is in second gear or above when the system is activated multiple gear changes may be made to either first gear or neutral, under all other circumstances the clutch alone may be activated.
Each time such a system is activated the clutch must be fully disengaged and must remain so until the driver de-activates the system by manually operating the clutch with a request greater than 95% of the total available travel of the drivers clutch actuation device.
5.22 Replacing power unit parts :
Refer to the table in Appendix 2 of these regulations.
The parts listed as “EXC” in the table referred to above may be changed without incurring a penalty under Article 28.4 of the F1 Sporting Regulations. If changing any of these parts involves breaking a seal this may be done but must be carried out under FIA supervision. Any parts changed may only be replaced by parts homologated in accordance with Appendix 4 of the F1 Sporting Regulations.
SEARCH INSIDE F1
- Bodywork and dimensions
- Brake system
- Car construction
- Electrical systems
- Fuel system and refuelling
- Impact testing
- Oil and coolant systems and charge air cooling
- Power Unit and ERS
- Roll structure testing
- Safety equipment
- Static load testing
- Suspension and steering systems
- Television cameras and timing transponders
- Transmission system
- Wheels and tyres