Engines and KERS
Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.
ARTICLE 5: ENGINES AND KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS
5.1 Engine specification:
5.1.1 Only 4-stroke engines with reciprocating pistons are permitted.
5.1.2 Engine capacity must not exceed 2400 cc.
5.1.3 Crankshaft rotational speed must not exceed 18,000rpm.
5.1.4 Supercharging is forbidden.
5.1.5 All engines must have 8 cylinders arranged in a 90º “V” configuration and the normal section of each cylinder must be circular.
5.1.6 Engines must have two inlet and two exhaust valves per cylinder.
Only reciprocating poppet valves are permitted.
The sealing interface between the moving valve component and the stationary engine component must be circular.
5.2 Other means of propulsion:
5.2.1 The use of any device, other than the 2.4 litre, four stroke engine described in 5.1 above and one KERS, to power the car, is not permitted.
5.2.2 With the exception of one fully charged KERS, the total amount of recoverable energy stored on the car must not exceed 300kJ. Any which may be recovered at a rate greater than 2kW must not exceed 20kJ.
5.2.3 The maximum power, in or out, of any KERS must not exceed 60kW.
Energy released from the KERS may not exceed 400kJ in any one lap.
Measurements will be taken at the connection to the rear wheel drivetrain.
5.2.4 The amount of stored energy in any KERS may not be increased whilst the car is stationary during a race pit stop.
Release of power from any such system must remain under the complete control of the driver at all times the car is on the track.
5.2.5 Cars must be fitted with homologated sensors which provide all necessary signals to the SDR in order to verify the requirements above are being respected.
5.3 Engine dimensions:
5.4.1 Cylinder bore diameter may not exceed 98mm.
5.3.2 Cylinder spacing must be fixed at 106.5mm (+/- 0.2mm).
5.3.3 The crankshaft centre line must not be less than 58mm above the reference plane.
5.4 Weight and centre of gravity:
5.4.1 The overall weight of the engine must be a minimum of 95kg.
5.4.2 The centre of gravity of the engine may not lie less than 165mm above the reference plane.
5.4.3 The longitudinal and lateral position of the centre of gravity of the engine must fall within a region that is the geometric centre of the engine, +/- 50mm. The geometric centre of the engine in a lateral sense will be considered to lie on the centre of the crankshaft and at the mid point between the centres of the forward and rear most cylinder bores longitudinally.
5.4.4 When establishing conformity with Articles 5.4.1, 5.4.2, 5.4.3 and Appendix 4 of the F1 Sporting Regulations, the homologated engine will include the intake system up to and including the air filter, fuel rail and injectors, ignition coils, engine mounted sensors and wiring, alternator, coolant pumps and oil pumps.
5.4.5 When establishing conformity with Article 5.4, the engine will not include:
- clutch and clutch actuation system ;
- flywheel ;
- electronic control units or any associated devices containing programmable semiconductors ;
- the alternator regulator ;
- liquids ;
- exhaust manifolds ;
- heat shields ;
- oil tanks, catch tanks or any breather system connected to them;
- studs used to mount the engine to the chassis or gearbox ;
- water system accumulators ;
- heat exchangers ;
- hydraulic system (e.g. pumps, accumulators, manifolds, servo-valves, solenoids, actuators) except servo-valve and actuator for engine throttle control ;
- fuel pumps nor any component not mounted on the engine when fitted to the car.
- any ancillary equipment associated with the engine valve air system, such as hoses, regulators, reservoirs or compressors.
Furthermore, any parts which are not ordinarily part of an engine will not be included when assessing its weight. Examples of this could be, but are not limited to :
- Wiring harnesses having only a partial association with engine actuators or sensors ;
- A bell housing designed to be integral with the engine crankcase;
- Top engine mountings designed higher than necessary with integral webs or struts. The centre of any engine mounting which is part of a cam cover should not be any more than 100mm above a line between the camshaft centres, when measured parallel to it. Any webs integral with the cam cover should not extend further back than the centre of the second cylinder bore.
- Ballast. This is permitted on the engine (subject to the requirements of Article 4.4) but any in excess of 2kg will be removed from the engine before measuring engine weight or centre of gravity height.
5.5 Engine torque demand :
5.5.1 The only means by which the driver may control the engine torque is via a single chassis mounted foot (accelerator) pedal.
5.5.2 Designs which allow specific points along the accelerator pedal travel range to be identified by the driver or assist him to hold a position are not permitted.
5.5.3 The maximum accelerator pedal travel position must correspond to an engine torque demand equal to or greater than the maximum engine torque at the measured engine speed.
The minimum accelerator pedal travel position must correspond to an engine torque demand equal to or lower than 0Nm.
5.5.4 The accelerator pedal shaping map in the ECU may only be linked to the type of the tyres fitted to the car : one map for use with dry‐weather tyres and one map for use with intermediate or wet‐weather tyres.
5.5.5 At any given engine speed the driver torque demand map must be monotonically increasing
for an increase in accelerator pedal position.
5.5.6 At any given accelerator pedal position and above 5,000rpm, the driver torque demand map must not have a gradient of less than – (minus) 0.030Nm / rpm.
5.6 Engine control :
5.6.1 The maximum delay allowed, computed from the respective signals as recorded by the ADR or ECU, between the accelerator pedal position input signal and the corresponding output demand being achieved is 50ms.
5.6.2 Teams may be required to demonstrate the accuracy of the engine configurations used by the ECU.
5.6.3 The maximum throttle target map in the ECU may only be used to avoid throttle target oscillations when the change of torque is small for a change of throttle position. It must not be used to artificially reduce the maximum engine torque.
The selection of the maximum throttle target map will be fixed during qualifying and race.
5.6.4 Engine control must not be influenced by clutch position, movement or operation.
5.6.5 The idle speed control target may not exceed 5,000rpm.
5.6.6 Except when anti‐stall or idle speed control are active, ignition base offsets may only be applied above 80% throttle and 15,000rpm and for the sole purpose of reducing cylinder pressure for reliability.
5.6.7 A number of engine protections are available in the ECU.
A minimum of nine seconds hold time should be configured for the engine protections enabled during qualifying and race. The configuration of the air tray fire detection and throttle failsafe are exceptionally unrestricted in order to allow each team to achieve the best level of safety.
5.7 Engine high rev limits :
Engine high rev limits may vary for differing conditions provided all are significantly above the peak of the engine torque curve. However, a lower rev limit may be used when :
‐ The gearbox is in neutral.
‐ Stall prevention is active.
‐ The driver clutch request is greater than 95% of the total available travel of the driver clutch actuation device, used only to protect the engine following a driver error.
‐ An engine protection is active.
‐ The bite point finder strategy is active.
‐ The safety car is deployed or during the formation lap.
Except for the above conditions, ignition, fuelling and throttle may not be used to artificially control the engine speed or alter the engine response in a rev range more than 1,000rpm below the final rev limit.
5.8 Exhaust systems :
5.8.1 With the exception of incidental leakage through exhaust joints (either into or out of the system), no fluids, other than those which emerge from the engine exhaust ports, may be admitted into the engine exhaust system.
5.8.2 Engine exhaust systems may incorporate no more than two exits, both of which must be rearward facing tailpipes, through which all exhaust gases must pass.
5.8.3 The last 100mm of any tailpipe must in its entirety :
a) Form a thin‐walled unobstructed right circular cylinder whose internal diameter is no greater than 75mm with its axis at +/‐10° to the car centre line when viewed from above
the car and between +10° and +30° (tail‐up) to the reference plane when viewed from the side of the car. The entire circumference of the exit should lie on a single plane normal to the tailpipe axis and be located at the rearmost extremity of the last 100mm of the tailpipe.
b) Be located between 250mm and 600mm above the reference plane.
c) Be located between 200mm and 500mm from the car centre line.
d) Be positioned in order that the entire circumference of the exit of the tailpipe lies between two vertical planes normal to the car centre line and which lie 500mm and 1200mm forward of the rear wheel centre line.
5.8.4 Once the exhaust tailpipes, the bodywork required by Article 3.8.4 and any apertures permitted by Article 3.8.5 have been fully defined there must be no bodywork lying within a right circular truncated cone which :
a) Shares a common axis with that of the last 100mm of the tailpipe.
b) Has a forward diameter equal to that of each exhaust exit.
c) Starts at the exit of the tailpipe and extends rearwards as far as the rear wheel centre line.
d) Has a half‐cone angle of 3° such that the cone has its larger diameter at the rear wheel centre line.
Furthermore, there must be a view from above, the side, or any intermediate angle perpendicular to the car centre line, from which the truncated cone is not obscured by any
bodywork lying more than 50mm forward of the rear wheel centre line.
5.9 Variable geometry systems:
5.9.1 Variable geometry inlet systems are not permitted.
5.9.2 Variable geometry exhaust systems are not permitted.
5.9.3 Variable valve timing and variable valve lift systems are not permitted.
5.10 Fuel systems
5.10.1 The pressure of the fuel supplied to the injectors may not exceed 100 bar. Sensors must be fitted which directly measure the pressure of the fuel supplied to the injectors, these signals must be supplied to the FIA data logger.
5.10.2 Only one fuel injector per cylinder is permitted which must inject directly into the side or the top of the inlet port.
5.11 Electrical systems:
5.11.1 Ignition is only permitted by means of a single ignition coil and single spark plug per cylinder. The use of plasma, laser or other high frequency ignition techniques is forbidden.
5.11.2 Only conventional spark plugs that function by high tension electrical discharge across an exposed gap are permitted.
Spark plugs are not subject to the materials restrictions described in Articles 5.16 and 5.17.
5.11.3 Other than for the specific purpose of powering KERS components, the primary regulated voltage on the car must not exceed 17.0V DC. This voltage is defined as the stabilised output from the on-car charging system.
With the exception of any KERS or capacitor circuitry or coils being used solely to provide ignition, any device with a current requirement greater than 50mA or a power requirement greater than 1W may only be supplied at or below the primary regulated voltage.
Only capacitor discharge ignition systems (those which generate a spark by means of closing a switch which then discharges a capacitor through the primary side of the ignition coil), are permitted to provide a voltage higher than the primary regulated voltage to an ignition coil.
Other than any parts being used to supply a higher voltage to devices such as those described in the previous paragraphs, no device may step up or increase the primary regulated voltage.
5.12 Engine actuators:
With the following exceptions hydraulic, pneumatic or electronic actuation is forbidden:
a) Electronic solenoids uniquely for the control of engine fluids;
b) Components providing controlled pressure air for a pneumatic valve system;
c) A single actuator to operate the throttle system of the engine.
d) Any components required as part of a KERS.
5.13 Engine auxiliaries:
With the exception of electrical fuel pumps engine auxiliaries must be mechanically driven directly from the engine with a fixed speed ratio to the crankshaft.
5.14 Engine intake air:
5.14.1 Other than injection of fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, any device, system, procedure, construction or design the purpose or effect of which is any decrease in the temperature of the engine intake air is forbidden.
5.14.2 Other than engine sump breather gases and fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, the spraying of any substance into the engine intake air is forbidden.
5.15 Materials and Construction - Definitions:
5.15.1 X Based Alloy (e.g. Ni based alloy) – X must be the most abundant element in the alloy on a %w/w basis. The minimum possible weight percent of the element X must always be greater than the maximum possible of each of the other individual elements present in the alloy.
5.15.2 X-Y Based Alloy (e.g. Al-Cu based alloy) – X must be the most abundant element as in 5.15.1 above. In addition element Y must be the second highest constituent (%w/w), after X in the alloy. The mean content of Y and all other alloying elements must be used to determine the second highest alloying element (Y).
5.15.3 Intermetallic Materials (e.g. TiAl, NiAl, FeAl, Cu3Au, NiCo) – These are materials where the material is based upon intermetallic phases, i.e. the matrix of the material consists of greater then 50%v/v intermetallic phase(s). An intermetallic phase is a solid solution between two or more metals exhibiting either partly ionic or covalent, or metallic bonding with a long range order, in a narrow range of composition around the stoichiometric proportion.
5.15.4 Composite Materials – These are materials where a matrix material is reinforced by either a continuous or discontinuous phase. The matrix can be metallic, ceramic, polymeric or glass based. The reinforcement can be present as long fibres (continuous reinforcement); or short fibres, whiskers and particles (discontinuous reinforcement).
5.15.5 Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) – These are composite materials with a metallic matrix containing a phase of greater than 2%v/v which is not soluble in the liquid phase of the metallic matrix.
5.15.6 Ceramic Materials (e.g. Al2O3, SiC, B4C, Ti5Si3, SiO2, Si3N4) – These are inorganic, non metallic solids.
5.16 Materials and construction – General:
5.16.1 Unless explicitly permitted for a specific engine component, the following materials may not be used anywhere on the engine:
a) Magnesium based alloys
b) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's)
c) Intermetallic materials
d) Alloys containing more than 5% by weight of Beryllium, Iridium or Rhenium.
5.16.2 Coatings are free provided the total coating thickness does not exceed 25% of the section thickness of the underlying base material in all axes. In all cases the relevant coating must not exceed 0.8mm.
5.17 Materials and construction – Components:
5.17.1 Pistons must be manufactured from an aluminium alloy which is either Al-Si; Al-Cu; Al-Mg or Al-Zn based.
5.17.2 Piston pins must be manufactured from an iron based alloy and must be machined from a single piece of material.
5.17.3 Connecting rods must be manufactured from iron or titanium based alloys and must be machined from a single piece of material with no welded or joined assemblies (other than a bolted big end cap or an interfered small end bush).
5.17.4 Crankshafts must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
No welding is permitted between the front and rear main bearing journals.
No material with a density exceeding 19,000kg/m3 may be assembled to the crankshaft.
5.17.5 Camshafts must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
Each camshaft and lobes must be machined from a single piece of material.
No welding is allowed between the front and rear bearing journals.
5.17.6 Valves must be manufactured from alloys based on Iron, Nickel, Cobalt or Titanium.
Hollow structures cooled by sodium, lithium or similar are permitted.
5.17.7 Reciprocating and rotating components:
a) Reciprocating and rotating components must not be manufactured from graphitic matrix, metal matrix composites or ceramic materials, this restriction does not apply to the clutch and any seals. Ceramic bearings are not permitted in ancillaries which are included when assessing the weight of the engine, e.g. alternator, coolant pumps and oil pumps ;
b) Rolling elements of rolling element bearings must be manufactured from an iron based alloy;
c) Timing gears between the crankshaft and camshafts (including hubs) must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
5.17.8 Static components:
a) Engine crankcases and cylinder heads must be manufactured from cast or wrought aluminium alloys.
No composite materials or metal matrix composites are permitted either for the whole component or locally.
b) Any metallic structure whose primary or secondary function is to retain lubricant or coolant within the engine must be manufactured from an iron based alloy or an aluminium alloy of the Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Zn or Al-Mg alloying systems.
c) All threaded fasteners must be manufactured from an alloy based on Cobalt, Iron or Nickel.
Composite materials are not permitted.
d) Valve seat inserts, valve guides and any other bearing component may be manufactured from metallic infiltrated pre-forms with other phases which are not used for reinforcement.
5.18 Starting the engine:
A supplementary device temporarily connected to the car may be used to start the engine both on the grid and in the pits.
5.19 Stall prevention systems:
If a car is equipped with a stall prevention system, and in order to avoid the possibility of a car involved in an accident being left with the engine running, all such systems must be configured to stop the engine no more than ten seconds after activation.
The sole purpose of such systems is to prevent the engine stalling when a driver loses control of the car. If the car is in second gear or above when the system is activated multiple gear changes may be made to either first gear or neutral, under all other circumstances the clutch alone may be activated.
Each time such a system is activated the clutch must be fully disengaged and must remain so until the driver de‐activates the system by manually operating the clutch with a request greater than 95% of the total available travel of the drivers clutch actuation device.
5.20 Replacing engine parts:
The parts in lists A and B below may be changed without incurring a penalty under Article 28.4 of the F1 Sporting Regulations. If changing any of these parts involves breaking a seal this may be done but must carried out under FIA supervision. The parts in List B may only be replaced by identical homologated parts in accordance with Appendix 4 of the F1 Sporting Regulations.
- Clutch basket
- Hydraulic pumps
- Engine electronic boxes (ECU's, power modules, control boxes)
- Fuel filters
- Fuel pumps
- Oil filters
- Oil tank systems
- Pneumatic bottles, regulators, pumps and pipes for valve actuation
- Exhaust systems
- Supports and brackets related to the auxiliaries, mentioned above
- Screws, nuts, dowels or washers related to the auxiliaries, mentioned above
- Cables, tubes or hoses related to the auxiliaries, mentioned above
- Oil or air seals related to the auxiliaries, mentioned above
- Spark plugs
- Throttle system (including but not limited to throttle device, linkage, actuator, hydraulics)
- Intake system external to cylinder head (including but not limited to trumpets, trumpet tray, air box, air filter)
- Ignition coils
- Injection system
- Oil scavenging pumps
- Oil supply pumps
- Oil air separators
- Water pumps
- Electric and electronic sensors
SEARCH INSIDE F1
- Bodywork and dimensions
- Brake system
- Car construction
- Electrical systems
- Engines and KERS
- Fuel system and refuelling
- Impact testing
- Oil and coolant systems
- Roll structure testing
- Safety equipment
- Static load testing
- Suspension and steering systems
- Television cameras and timing transponders
- Transmission system
- Wheels and tyres