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Brake system

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.

11.1 Brake circuits and pressure distribution :
With the exception of a power unit, all cars must be equipped with only one brake system. This system must comprise solely of two separate hydraulic circuits operated by one pedal, one circuit operating on the two front wheels and the other on the two rear wheels. This system must be designed so that if a failure occurs in one circuit the pedal will still operate the brakes in the other.
The diameters of the master cylinders acting on the two rear wheels and the two front wheels must be within 2mm of each other and have the same available travel. The same principle must be applied in multi-stage master cylinder designs.
11.1.2 The brake system must be designed in order that the force exerted on the brake pads within each circuit are the same at all times.
11.1.3 Any powered device, other than the system referred to in Article 11.7, which is capable of altering the configuration or affecting the performance of any part of the brake system is forbidden.
11.1.4 Any change to, or modulation of, the brake system whilst the car is moving must be made by the driver's direct physical input or by the system referred to in Article 11.7, and may not be pre-set.
11.2 Brake calipers :
All brake calipers must be made from aluminium materials with a modulus of elasticity no greater than 80Gpa.
11.2.2 No more than two attachments may be used to secure each brake caliper to the car.
11.2.3 No more than one caliper, with a maximum of six pistons, is permitted on each wheel.
11.2.4 The section of each caliper piston must be circular.
11.3 Brake discs and pads :
No more than one brake disc is permitted on each wheel.
11.3.2 All discs must have a maximum thickness of 28mm and a maximum outside diameter of 278mm.
11.3.3 No more than two brake pads are permitted on each wheel.
11.4 Air ducts :
Air ducts around the front and rear brakes will be considered part of the braking system and shall not protrude beyond :
a) A plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 160mm above the horizontal centre line of the wheel.
b) A plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 160mm below the horizontal centre line of the wheel.
c) A vertical plane parallel to the inner face of the wheel rim and displaced from it by 120mm toward the car centre line.
Furthermore :
d) When viewed from the side the ducts must not protrude forwards beyond a radius of 330mm from the centre of the wheel or backwards beyond a radius of 180mm from the centre of the wheel.
e) The ducts may not rotate with the wheels nor may they, or any of their mountings, protrude axially beyond the outer face of the wheel fastener.
f) No part of the car, other than those specifically defined in Articles 12.8.1 and 12.8.2, may obscure any part of the wheel when viewed from the outside of the car towards the car centre line along the axis of the wheel.
All measurements will be made with the wheel held in a vertical position.
11.5 Brake pressure modulation :
No braking system may be designed to prevent wheels from locking when the driver applies pressure to the brake pedal.
11.5.2 No braking system may be designed to increase the pressure in the brake calipers above that achievable by the driver applying pressure to the pedal under all conditions.
11.6 Liquid cooling :
Liquid cooling of the brakes is forbidden.
11.7 Rear brake control system :
The pressure in the rear braking circuit may be provided by a powered control system provided that :
a) The driver brake pedal is connected to a hydraulic master cylinder that generates a pressure source that can be applied to the rear braking circuit if the powered system is disabled.
b) The powered system is controlled by the control electronics described in Article 8.2.