Haryanto, who is currently competing with Caterham's junior arm in GP2, has previous F1 testing experience - with Virgin Racing in Abu Dhabi in 2010, and then across two days at Silverstone with Marussia in 2012.
"I can't wait to be back in an F1 car and I'm delighted it's with Caterham F1 Team, the senior team to EQ8 Caterham Racing," said the 21-year-old, currently tenth in the GP2 standings.
"The last time I drove an F1 car was at the young driver test at Silverstone in 2012 and with the new engine regulations this year I'm sure it'll be a very different experience.
"The goal for me is to use this day as another learning experience, another chance to build on the F1 laps I've already done, and while my focus before the test is obviously to do the best job I can in GP2, I will be 100 percent ready to work to the plan the team set and help them develop as best I can."
Haryanto will take over from Caterham test driver Will Stevens, who will be charged with driving duties on the first day.
The two-day Silverstone test is the third of four in-season tests arranged for 2014, and runs from July 8-9.