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Spare cars, engines and gearboxes

A Lotus E20 under wraps in the garage.
Formula One World Championship, Rd17, Indian Grand Prix, Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida, New Delhi, India, Qualifying, Saturday, 27 October 2012 Renault Sport F1 engine.
Formula One Testing, Preparations, Jerez, Spain,  Monday, 6 February 2012 Gearbox detail.
Formula One World Championship, Rd15, Japanese Grand Prix, Preparations, Suzuka, Japan, Thursday, 4 October 2012

FIA regulations state that teams may have no more than two cars available for use at any one time. Spare cars are not allowed, though teams may bring additional chassis which can be built up in the event of a race chassis being damaged beyond repair.

If a driver switches car between qualifying and the race then he must start the race from the pit lane. A change of car is not allowed once the race has started.

There are also restrictions on power unit (engine and associated Energy Recovery Systems) and gearbox use. Each driver may use no more than five power units during a championship season.

The power unit is deemed to consist of six separate elements, of which five of each are available to each driver per season before they are penalised. The elements are the engine, the motor generator unit-kinetic (MGU-K), the motor generator unit-heat (MGU-H), the energy store (ES), turbocharger (TC) and control electronics (CE). Should a driver use more than five of any one component he faces a penalty ranging from a five-place grid drop, a 10-place grid drop, or (if the entire power unit has to be changed) starting the race from the pit lane.

If the grid penalty imposed cannot be taken in full at one event, the remainder of the penalty is carried over to the following event. For example, if a driver qualifies 15th and is then given a 10-place grid penalty he’ll be dropped seven grid places to 22nd and last at that meeting and then the remaining three grid places from wherever he qualifies at the next event.

Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for six consecutive events. Every unscheduled gearbox change will require the driver to drop five places on the grid at that meeting. Every subsequent unscheduled gearbox change will require the driver to drop five places on the grid. Gearbox ratios are fixed for the season (for 2014 only teams may re-nominate ratios once), but teams may change gears or dog rings at any time during an event providing that the FIA technical delegate is satisfied that there is physical damage to the parts in question.

If a driver fails to finish a race due to reasons beyond his or his team's control, he may start the next meeting with a different gearbox without incurring a penalty.