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Spare cars, engines and gearboxes

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l'Automobile.

28) SPARE CARS, ENGINES AND GEARBOXES
28.1
Each competitor may have no more than two cars available for use at any one time during an Event. Other than on the day of the race after cars have been released from post-qualifying parc fermé (see Article 34.4), any partially assembled survival cell will be deemed to be a car in this context if it is fitted with an engine, any front suspension external to the survival cell, bodywork, radiators, oil tanks external to the survival cell or heat exchangers.
28.2 Any driver who decides to use another car or whose car has a change of survival cell following the qualifying practice session must start the race from the pit lane following the procedures detailed in Article 38.2. Under these circumstances :
a) The car concerned will not have to comply with the requirements of Article 34.
b) The car will be permitted to carry out one reconnaissance lap when the pit lane is opened for the race.
28.3 No change of car is permitted after the start of the race.
A change of car will be deemed to have taken place once a driver is seated in his new car and such change may only take place in the team's designated garage area.
28.4 a) Unless he drives for more than one team (see 28.4(d) below), each driver may use no more than five power units during a Championship season.
b) For the purposes of this Article 28.4 the power unit will be deemed to comprise six separate elements, the engine (ICE), the motor generator unit-kinetic (MGU-K), the motor generator unit-heat (MGU-H), the energy store (ES), turbocharger (TC) and control electronics (CE). Each driver will therefore be permitted to use five of each of the above six components during a Championship season and any combination of them may be fitted to a car at any one time.
c) Should a driver use more than five of any one of the elements a grid place penalty will be imposed upon him at the first Event during which each additional element is used. Penalties will be applied according to the following table and will be cumulative :
Replacement of a complete power unit = The driver concerned must start the race from the pit lane.
The first time a 6th of any of the elements is used = Ten grid place penalty.
The first time a 6th of any of the remaining elements is used = Five grid place penalty.
The first time a 7th of any of the elements is used = Ten grid place penalty.
The first time a 7th of any of the remaining elements is used, and so on = Five grid place penalty.

A power unit or any of the six components will be deemed to have been used once the car's timing transponder has shown that it has left the pit lane.
If a grid place penalty is imposed, and the driver's grid position is such that the full penalty cannot be applied, the remainder of the penalty will be applied at the driver's next Event. However, no such remaining penalties will be carried forward for more than one Event.
d) If a driver is replaced at any time during the Championship season his replacement will be deemed to be the original driver for the purposes of assessing power unit usage.
e) After consultation with the relevant power unit supplier the FIA will attach seals to each of the relevant components within the power unit prior to them being used for the first time at an Event in order to ensure that no significant moving parts can be rebuilt or replaced.
Within two hours of the end of the post race parc fermé exhaust blanking plates (with one 10mm diameter inspection hole per cylinder) and further seals will be applied to all used power unit components in order to ensure that they cannot be run or dismantled between Events.
Upon request to the FIA these additional seals will be removed after the start of initial scrutineering at the next Event at which the power units are required. All such power units must remain within the team's designated garage area when not fitted to a car and may not be started at any time during an Event other than when fitted to a car eligible to participate in the Event.
f) If any of the FIA seals are damaged or removed from the relevant components within the power unit after they have been used for the first time those parts may not be used again unless they were removed under FIA supervision.
g) If a power unit or any of the six components within it are changed in accordance with Article 34.2 the power unit components which were replaced may not be used again during any future qualifying session or race with the exception of the last Event of the Championship.
28.5 Only power units which have been homologated by the FIA in accordance with Appendix 4 may be used at an Event during the 2014-2020 Championship seasons.
28.6 For the purposes of this Article only, an Event will be deemed to comprise P3, the qualifying practice session and the race.
a) Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for six consecutive Events in which his team competes. Should a driver use a replacement gearbox he will drop five places on the starting grid at that Event and an additional five places each time a further gearbox is used.
Any replacement gearbox will only be required to complete the remainder of the Event in question.
Unless the driver fails to finish the race (or is unable to start the race for reasons other than a penalty imposed by the stewards) the gearbox fitted to the car at the end of the Event must remain in it for the remainder of the six race sequence. Any driver who failed to finish the race at the first, second, third, fourth or fifth of the six Events for reasons which the technical delegate accepts as being beyond the control of the team or driver, may start the following Event with a different gearbox without a penalty being incurred.
A gearbox will be deemed to have been used once the car's timing transponder has shown that it has left the pit lane.
b) If a driver is replaced after the first, second, third, fourth or fifth Event of a six Event period, having finished the first, second, third, fourth and fifth Events, the replacement driver must use the gearbox which the original driver had been using.
c) After consultation with the relevant team the FIA will attach seals to each gearbox prior to it being used for the first time at an Event in order to ensure that no significant moving parts can be rebuilt or replaced.
d) Change gears and dog rings (excluding final drives or reduction gears) may be changed under supervision for others of identical specification at any time during an Event provided the FIA technical delegate is satisfied there is evident physical damage to the parts in question and that such changes are not being carried out on a systematic basis.
For 2014 only, on five occasions per driver, a competitor need not provide evidence of physical damage in order to carry out these changes. Furthermore, the use of parts of identical specification will not be necessary when the changes are being made in accordance with Article 9.6.2 of the F1 Technical Regulations.
e) Other than under d) above, a replacement gearbox will also be deemed to have been used if any of the FIA seals are damaged or removed from the original gearbox after it has been used for the first time.