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Car construction

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.

ARTICLE 15 : CAR CONSTRUCTION
15.1 Permitted materials :
15.1.1
The following is the list of permitted materials. These are the only materials permitted to be used in the construction of the Formula One Car provided only that in all cases the material is available on a non-exclusive basis and under normal commercial terms to all competitors.
Permitted materials :
1) Aluminium alloys.
2) Silicon carbide particulate reinforced aluminium alloy matrix composites.
3) Steel alloys.
4) Cobalt alloys.
5) Copper alloys containing ¡Â 2.5% by weight of Beryllium.
6) Titanium alloys (but not for use in fasteners with <15mm diameter male thread).
7) Magnesium alloys.
8) Nickel based alloys containing 50% < Ni < 69%.
9) Tungsten alloy.
10) Thermoplastics : monolithic, particulate filled, short fibre reinforced.
11) Thermosets : monolithic, particulate filled, short fibre reinforced.
12) Carbon fibres manufactured from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor. (*)
13) Carbon fibres manufactured from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor which have :
- A tensile modulus ¡Â 550GPa.
- A density ¡Â 1.92 g/cm3.
- Unidirectional or planar reinforcement within their pre-impregnated form, not including three dimensional weaves or stitched fabrics (but three dimensional preforms and fibre reinforcement using Z-pinning technology are permitted).
- No carbon nanotubes incorporated within the fibre or its matrix.
- A permitted matrix, not including a carbon matrix.
14) Aramid fibres.
15) Poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) fibres (e.g. ¡°Zylon¡±).
16) Polyethylene fibres.
17) Polypropylene fibres.
18) E and S Glass fibres.
19) Sandwich panel cores: Aluminium, Nomex, polymer foams, syntactic foams, balsa wood, carbon foam.
20) The matrix system utilised in all pre-impregnated materials must be epoxy, cyanate ester, phenolic, bismaleimide, polyurethane, polyester or polyimide based. (*)
21) The matrix system utilised in all pre-impregnated materials must be epoxy, cyanate ester or bismaleimide based.
22) Monolithic ceramics.
[Materials marked (*) are permitted only for parts classified as either front, rear or side impact structures, side intrusion panels or suspension members as regulated by Articles 15.4.3, 15.5.3, 15.4.6, 15.4.7 and 10.3 of the Technical Regulations respectively.]
Exceptions :
1) All electrical components (e.g. control boxes, wiring looms, sensors).
2) All seals & rubbers (e.g. rubber boots, o-rings, gaskets, any fluid seals, bump rubbers).
3) Fluids (e.g. water, oils).
4) Tyres.
5) Coatings and platings (e.g. DLC, nitriding, chroming).
6) Paint.
7) Adhesives.
8) Thermal insulation (e.g. felts, gold tape, heat shields).
9) All currently regulated materials (e.g. fuel bladder, headrest, extinguishant, padding, skid block).
10) Brake and clutch friction materials.
11) All parts of power units homologated according to Appendix 4 of the Sporting Regulations.
15.1.2 No parts of the car may be made from metallic materials which have a specific modulus of elasticity greater than 40GPa / (g/cm3). Tests to establish conformity will be carried out in accordance with FIA Test Procedure 03/02, a copy of which may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
15.2 Roll structures :
15.2.1
All cars must have two roll structures which are designed to help prevent injury to the driver in the event of the car becoming inverted.
The principal structure must be at least 940mm above the reference plane at a point 30mm behind the rear face of the cockpit entry template. The secondary structure must be in front of the steering wheel and its highest point may be no more than 1050mm forward of the rear face of the cockpit entry template.
The two roll structures must be of sufficient height to ensure the driver's helmet and his steering wheel are at least 70mm and 50mm respectively below a line drawn between their highest points at all times. The measurements will be taken normal to the line between the highest points of the two structures.
15.2.2 The principal structure must pass a static load test details of which may be found in Article 17.2. Furthermore, each team must supply detailed calculations which clearly show that it is capable of withstanding the same load when the longitudinal component is applied in a forward direction.
15.2.3 The secondary structure must pass a static load test details of which may be found in Article 17.3. The highest point of the secondary structure may not be more than 670mm above the reference plane.
15.2.4 The principal roll structure must have a minimum enclosed structural cross section of 10000mm©÷, in vertical projection, across a horizontal plane 50mm below its highest point. The area thus established must not exceed 200mm in length or width and may not be less than 10000mm2 below this point.
15.2.5 The secondary roll structure must have a minimum enclosed structural cross section of 10000mm©÷, in vertical projection, across a horizontal plane 50mm below its highest point.
15.3 Structure behind the driver :
The parts of the survival cell immediately behind the driver which separate the cockpit from the car¡¯s fuel tank, and which lie less than 150mm from the car centre line, may be situated no further forward than the line a-b-c-d-e shown in Drawing 2.
In order to validate the integrity of this structure the survival cell must pass an impact test against a solid vertical barrier placed at right angles to the car centre line. Details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.3.
15.4 Survival cell specifications :
15.4.1
Every survival cell must incorporate three FIA supplied transponders for identification purposes. These transponders must be a permanent part of the survival cell, be positioned in accordance with Drawing 6 and must be accessible for verification at any time.
15.4.2 The survival cell must have an opening for the driver, the minimum dimensions of which are given in Article 13.1. Any other ducts or openings in the survival cell must either :
a) Be of the minimum size, and for the sole purpose of, allowing access to mechanical components.
b) Be for the sole purpose of cooling the driver or mechanical or electrical components, the area of any such duct or opening may not exceed 3000mm2.
15.4.3 An impact absorbing structure must be fitted in front of the survival cell. This structure need not be an integral part of the survival cell but must be solidly attached to it.
No part of this structure may lie more than 525mm above the reference plane.
It must have a single external cross section, in horizontal projection, of more than 9000mm©÷ at a point 50mm behind its forward-most point. Furthermore :
a) No part of this cross-section may lie more than 250mm or less than 135mm above the reference plane.
b) The centre of area of this section must be no more than 185mm above the reference plane and no less than 750mm forward of the front wheel centre line.
15.4.4 Referring to Drawing 5 :
The external width of the survival cell between the lines B-B and C-C must be no less than 450mm and must be at least 60mm per side wider than the cockpit opening when measured normal to the inside of the cockpit aperture. These minimum dimensions must be maintained over a height of at least 350mm.
The width of the survival cell may taper forward of the line B-B but, if this is the case, the outer surface must not lie closer to the car centre line than a plane which has a linear taper to a minimum width of 300mm at the line A-A.
The minimum width must be arranged symmetrically about the car centre line, must be maintained over a height of at least 400mm at the line B-B and 275mm at the line A-A. The height at any point between A-A and B-B must not be less than the height defined by a linear taper between these two sections. When assessing the minimum external cross-sections of the survival cell, radii of 50mm at the line B-B, and reducing at a linear rate to 25mm at the line A-A, will be permitted.
Following the application of the permitted radii, the external cross-sections of the survival cell between the lines A-A and B-B must, over their respective minimum widths, have a minimum height of 300mm at the line B-B reducing at a linear rate to a minimum height of 225mm at the line A-A. Furthermore, no part of any external cross section of the survival cell in this area which lies more than 250mm above the reference plane may contain any concave radius of curvature.
The minimum height of the survival cell between the lines A-A and B-B need not be arranged symmetrically about the horizontal centre line of the relevant section but must be maintained over its entire width.
The maximum height of the survival cell between the lines A-A and B-B is 625mm above the reference plane.
No part of sections taken at the lines A-A and B-B may lie more than 525mm and 625mm respectively above the reference plane.
The minimum height of the survival cell between the lines B-B and C-C is 550mm.
15.4.5 When the test referred to in Article 13.1.1 is carried out and the template is in position with its lower edge 525mm above the reference plane, the shape of the survival cell must be such that no part of it is visible when viewed from either side of the car. The parts of the survival cell which are situated each side of the driver's head must be no more than 550mm apart.
In order to ensure that the driver¡¯s head is not unduly exposed and for him to maintain good lateral visibility he must, when seated normally and looking straight ahead with his head as far back as possible, have his eye visible when viewed from the side. The centre of gravity of his head must lie below the top of the survival cell at this position. When viewed from the side of the car, the centre of gravity of the driver¡¯s head will be deemed to be the intersection of a vertical line passing through the centre of his ear and a horizontal line passing through the centre of his eye.
15.4.6 In order to give additional protection to the driver in the event of a side impact a flat test panel of uniform construction, which is designed and constructed in order to represent a section of the survival cell sides, must pass a strength test. Details of the test procedure may be found in Article 18.7.
Referring to Drawing 5, with the exception of local re-enforcement and/or inserts, all parts of the survival cell which are as wide or wider than the minimum widths stipulated in Article 15.4.4, including any radii applied, must be manufactured to the same specification as a single panel which satisfies the requirements of Article 18.7. Furthermore, parts to this tested specification must cover an area which :
a) Begins no less than 250mm high at the line A-A tapering at a linear rate to a minimum of 450mm high at the line B-B.
b) Lies between two horizontal lines 100mm and 550mm above the reference plane between the line B-B and the rear of the survival cell.
15.4.7 Once the requirements of Articles 15.4.4, 15.4.6, 15.5.1, 15.5.2, 15.5.4, 15.5.5, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7 and 18.9 have been met, panels no less than 6.2mm thick must then be permanently attached to the survival cell sides. These panels must :
a) In a longitudinal sense, cover the area lying between the line B-B and a vertical plane 50mm to the rear of the rear edge of the cockpit entry template. A 50mm horizontal linear taper may be included at both ends.
b) In a vertical sense, cover the area lying between two horizontal planes 100mm and 550mm above the reference plane.
c) Be constructed from 16 plies of Zylon and two plies of carbon, precise lay-up details must be followed and may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
d) Be permanently attached to the survival cell with an appropriate adhesive which has been applied over their entire surface.
Cut-outs in these panels totalling 35000mm©÷ per side will be permitted for fitting around side impact structures, wiring loom holes and essential fixings.
15.4.8 Once the requirements of Articles 15.4.4, 15.4.6, 15.5.1, 15.5.2, 15.5.4, 15.5.5, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7 and 18.9 have been met one further panel, which may be made in a maximum of three parts but which is no less than 3.0mm thick, must then be permanently attached to the survival cell. This panel must :
a) In a longitudinal sense, cover the area lying between a vertical plane 300mm to the rear of the line A-A and a vertical plane 650mm forward of the rear edge of the cockpit entry template. A 25mm horizontal linear taper may be included at both ends.
b) In a vertical sense, cover every part of the outer skin of the survival cell in the area lying between two horizontal planes 60mm and 550mm above the reference plane. This will not apply at the top of this panel where any radius permitted by Article 15.4.4 falls inside the minimum permitted chassis width nor for the area fitted with the panel defined by Article 15.4.7.
c) If made in more than one part, have all adjacent parts overlapping by a minimum of 25mm. These overlaps may include linear tapers in the thickness of both parts.
d) Overlap the panel defined by Article 15.4.7 along all joining edges by a minimum of 25mm. These overlaps may include linear tapers in the thickness of both parts.
e) Be constructed from seven plies of Zylon and two plies of carbon, precise lay-up details must be followed and may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
f) Be permanently attached to the survival cell with an appropriate adhesive which has been applied over its entire surface including all overlapping joints.
Cut-outs in this panel totalling 15000mm©÷ per side will be permitted for fitting around wiring loom holes and essential fixings.
15.5 Survival cell safety requirements :
15.5.1
The survival cell and frontal absorbing structure must pass an impact test against a solid vertical barrier placed at right angles to the car centre line. Details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.2.
15.5.2 Between the principal and secondary roll structures, two impact absorbing structures must be fitted on each side of the survival cell and must be solidly attached to it. The purpose of these structures is to protect the driver in the event of a lateral impact and, in order to ensure this is the case, strength tests of the mountings must be carried out successfully. Details of the test procedure may be found in Articles 18.9 and 18.10.
The impact absorbing structures must be manufactured and mounted to the survival cell in accordance with the following specifications :
a) The construction and geometry of the structures may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
b) The structures must be mounted with the principal axes of their prismatic mounting sections perpendicular to the longitudinal and vertical centre plane of the car, and with the centres of area of their outermost longitudinal vertical cross sections positioned :
i) Longitudinally : 500mm (+/-25mm) forward of the rear face of the cockpit entry template and within 1mm of each other.
ii) Vertically : Between 400mm and 520mm above the reference plane and between 70mm and 190mm above the reference plane for the upper and lower structures respectively.
iii) Laterally : Within 1mm of each other.
Refer to the drawings which may be found in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
c) Mountings must be permanently bonded to the structures to enable them to be attached to the survival cell, each of them must :
i) Incorporate a closed end and internal abutment to the impact structure that must be capable of withstanding the lateral load described in Article18.10 without a structural contribution from the bonded interface.
ii) Lie entirely inboard of a plane which lies 292mm inboard of the outermost longitudinal vertical cross section of the impact structure.
iii) Be arranged in order that the outermost surface created by an interface between the mounting and structure lies on a vertical surface that is located within the zone indicated in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
iv) Be arranged in order that the innermost extent of the bonded interface between the mounting and structure is offset inboard by a minimum of 44mm from the vertical surface defined in (iii) above.
v) Be arranged in order that the bonded interface covers the entire external area of the structure between the innermost and outermost extents defined in iii) and iv) above.
d) To allow for debris compaction, the internal volume of the :
i) Upper structure must be empty outboard of a vertical plane intersecting the structure leading edge at 367mm and trailing edge at 342mm measured from the outermost longitudinal vertical cross section of the impact structure as indicated in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
ii) Lower structure must be empty outboard of a vertical plane intersecting the structure leading edge at 382mm and trailing edge at 357mm measured from the outermost longitudinal vertical cross section of the impact structure as indicated in the Appendix to the Technical Regulations.
No parts which, in the opinion of the FIA technical delegate, would prevent proper function of the impact structures in the event of a lateral impact may be present in the volume lying between 300mm and 700mm forward of the rear face of the cockpit entry template, and between 50mm and 600mm above the reference plane, and outboard of a plane 280mm inboard of the outermost longitudinal vertical cross section of the impact structures.
15.5.3 An impact absorbing structure must be fitted behind the gearbox symmetrically about the car centre line with the centre of area of its rearmost face 300mm (+/-5mm) above the reference plane and no less than 575mm behind the rear wheel centre line.
The rearmost face of the impact structure must be a rectangular section no less than 100mm wide, this minimum width must be maintained over a height of at least 130mm and each corner may incorporate a radius no greater than 10mm.
Furthermore, when viewed from the side, the lowest and highest points of the impact absorbing structure between its rear face and 50mm aft of the rear wheel centre line may not be separated vertically by more than 275 mm.
Between the rear face and the rear wheel centre line no dimension of the area thus defined may diminish nor may any part of the structure or gearbox which is visible from below, other than the permitted radii, be higher than the lower edge of the rear face. Pockets of minimum size within the structure are permitted for the sole purpose of attaching suspension members.
This structure must pass an impact test and must be constructed from materials which will not be substantially affected by the temperatures it is likely to be subjected to during use. Details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.4.
In order to minimise the likelihood of the structure penetrating a survival cell, it must be designed so that the majority of its material lies evenly around its perimeter. Therefore, the perimeter of every vertical cross section between points 50mm forward of its rear face and 200mm forward of its rear face must be of a uniform construction and, with the exception of minimal local changes for attachments, have a minimum thickness of 1.75mm. Material with a specific gravity of less than 1 will not be considered when calculating these thicknesses and, furthermore, any internal structure must not be thicker than any part of the perimeter at that section.
Only those parts of the structure which genuinely contribute to its performance during the impact test, and which are designed and fitted for that sole purpose, will be considered when assessing compliance with any of the above.
15.5.4 The survival cell must also be subjected to five separate static load tests :
1) On a vertical plane passing through the centre of the fuel tank.
2) On a vertical plane passing through the rearmost point at which the outer end of the forward-most front wheel tether would make contact with the survival cell when swung about the inner attachment.
3) From beneath the fuel tank.
4) On each side of the cockpit opening.
5) From beneath the cockpit floor.
Details of the test procedures may be found in Article 18.2, 18.3, 18.4 and 18.5.
15.5.5 To test the attachments of the frontal, side and rear impact absorbing structures static side load tests must be carried out. Details of these test procedures may be found in Articles 18.6, 18.8 and 18.9.2.