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Fuel

Published with permission from the Federation Internationale de l' Automobile.

ARTICLE 19: FUEL
19.1 Purpose of Article 19:
19.1.1
The purpose of this Article is to ensure that the fuel used in Formula One is petrol as this term is generally understood.
19.1.2 The detailed requirements of this Article are intended to ensure the use of fuels which are predominantly composed of compounds normally found in commercial fuels and to prohibit the use of specific power-boosting chemical compounds. Acceptable compounds and compound classes are defined in 19.2 and 19.4.3. In addition, to cover the presence of low level impurities, the sum of components lying outside the 19.2 and 19.4.3 definitions are limited to 1% max m/m of the total fuel.
19.1.3 Any petrol which appears to have been formulated in order to subvert the purpose of this regulation will be deemed to be outside it.
19.2 Definitions:


Paraffins -straight chain and branched alkanes.
Olefins -straight chain and branched mono-olefins and di-olefins. Monocyclic mono-olefins (with five or more carbon atoms in the ring) with or without paraffinic side chains.
Di-olefins -straight chain or branched or monocyclic hydrocarbons (with five or more carbon atoms in any ring) with or without paraffinic side chains, containing two double bonds per molecule.
Naphthenes -monocyclic alkanes (with five or more carbon atoms in the ring) with or without paraffinic side chains.
Aromatics -monocyclic and bicyclic aromatic rings with or without paraffinic or olefinic side chains. Only one double bond may be present outside the aromatic ring.
Oxygenates -organic compounds containing oxygen.
Biocomponents -Paraffins, olefins, di-olefins, naphthenes, aromatics and oxygenates, as defined above, derived in whole or part from biological origins. For the purposes of quantification, the biocomponent contribution of a given molecule is defined as the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms from biological origin as a percent of the total
molecule, on a mass/mass basis. The biocomponent contribution of a co-produced stream is determined as the bio feedstock percentage on a mass/mass basis.

19.3 Properties: The only fuel permitted is petrol having the following characteristics:
PropertyUnitsMinMaxTest Method
(RON+MON)/287.0ASTM D 2699/D 2700
Oxygenwt%3.7Elemental Analysis
Nitrogenmg/kg500ASTM D 4629
Benzenewt%1.0GC-MS
RVPkPa4560(1)EN13016-1
Leadg/l0.005ASTM D 3237
Oxidation stabilityminutes360ASTM D 525
Sulphurmg/kg10EN ISO 20846
Electrical ConductivitypS/m200ASTM D 2624
Final Boiling Point°C210ISO 3405
Distillation Residue%v/v2.0ISO 3405

(1) The maximum RVP may rise to 68kPa if a minimum of 2% bio-methanol and/or bio-ethanol are included in the fuel.
The fuel will be accepted or rejected according to ASTM D 3244 with a confidence limit of 95%.

19.4 Composition of the fuel:
19.4.1
The composition of the petrol must comply with the specifications detailed below:
ComponentUnitsMinMaxTest Method
Aromaticswt%40*GCMS
Olefinswt%17*GCMS
Total di-olefinswt%1.0GCMS
Total styrene and alkyl derivativeswt%1.0GCMS
*Values corrected for fuel oxygenate content.
In addition, the fuel must contain no substance which is capable of exothermic reaction in the absence of external oxygen.
19.4.2 The total of individual hydrocarbon components present at concentrations of less than 5%m/m of the total fuel must be at least 30% m/m of the hydrocarbon content of the fuel.
19.4.3 The only oxygenates permitted are paraffinic mono-alcohols and paraffinic mono-ethers with a final boiling point below 210°C.
19.4.4 A minimum of 5.75% (m/m) of the fuel must comprise bio-components.
19.4.5 Initially the bio-components are restricted to oxygenates. However, hydrocarbons (as defined in 19.2)and oxygenates (lying outside the 19.4.3 definition) or mixtures thereof, which have been produced from biomass, may be included in Formula One fuel as part of the 5.75% biocomponents quota, provided that a suitable analytical procedure is available for their quantification and to verify their biological origin. Their use in F1 fuel will be dependent on evidence indicating that the supplier is genuinely developing these compounds for use in commercial fuels.
19.4.6 Manganese based additives are not permitted
19.5 Air:
Only ambient air may be mixed with the fuel as an oxidant.
19.6 Safety:
19.6.1
All competitors must be in possession of a Material Safety Data Sheet for each type of petrol used. This sheet must be made out in accordance with EC Directive 93/112/EEC and all information contained therein strictly adhered to.
19.7 Fuel approval:
19.7.1
Before any fuel may be used in an Event, two separate five litre samples, in suitable containers, must be submitted to the FIA for analysis and approval.
19.7.2 No fuel may be used in an Event without prior written approval of the FIA.
19.8 Sampling and testing at an Event:
19.8.1
All samples will be taken in accordance with FIA Formula One fuel sampling procedure, a copy of which may be found in the Appendix to these regulations.
19.8.2 Fuel samples taken during an Event will be checked for conformity by using a gas chromatographic technique which will compare the sample taken with an approved fuel. Samples which differ from the approved fuel in a manner consistent with evaporative loss, will be considered to conform. However, the FIA retains the right to subject the fuel sample to further testing at an FIA approved laboratory.
19.8.3 GC peak areas of the sample will be compared with those obtained from the reference fuel. Increases in any given peak area (relative to its adjacent peak areas) which are greater than 12%, or an absolute amount greater than 0.1% for compounds present at concentrations below 0.8%, will be deemed not to comply.
If a peak is detected in a fuel sample that was absent in the corresponding reference fuel, and its peak area represents more than 0.10% of the summed peak areas of the fuel, the fuel will be deemed not to comply.
If the deviations observed (above) by GC indicate that they are due to mixing with another Formula One fuel, which has been approved by the FIA for use by the team, the fuel sample will be deemed to comply, provided that the adulterant fuel is present at no more than 10% in the sample.