Toro Rosso were forced to change Vergne's internal combustion engine ahead of qualifying, following issues in the third and final practice session.
"The most important thing is that he managed to qualify above P12 and so he takes all his penalty here, with none of it carried over to Russia next weekend," commented Toro Rosso's deputy technical director Ben Waterhouse.
As a result of his penalty, Vergne shares the penultimate row of the provisional grid with Caterham's Kamui Kobayashi. Marussia's Max Chilton will start from 21st alongside Lotus's Pastor Maldonado, who was handed his own 10-place grid drop for an engine change prior to qualifying 17th.
Under 2014 regulations, each driver is allowed to use no more than five of any of the six power unit components - the engine, MGU-K, MGU-H, energy store, turbocharger and control electronics - over the course of the season.