Vettel's Red Bull RB10 will be fitted with a new engine, a new turbo, a new MGU-K and MGU-H, and new energy store and control electronics systems.
Drivers are only allowed to use five of each element before incurring a penalty, so in accordance with Article 28.4 of the sporting regulations, Vettel is required to start Sunday's race from the pit lane.
The four-time world champion has claimed pole in the previous two Grands Prix in Austin, and has never finished outside the top two - he won last year's race, and finished second to Lewis Hamilton, at the time racing for McLaren, in the inaugural 2012 event.
McLaren's Jenson Button is also set for a grid drop for Sunday's race. The Briton is expected to be penalised five places for an unscheduled gearbox change.