Ferrari will provide the power unit and transmission, as well as overall technical support, under a multi-year agreement with Haas.
Ferrari team principal Marco Mattiacci said the deal could evolve beyond a simple supply relationship, particularly given Ferrari's commercial interests in the United States.
"A few months ago we joined forces with Gene Haas on a commercial level and this is the natural next step of our growing relationship," Mattiacci said.
"While our objective is to reinforce our power unit development program for all our customer teams, we believe this new partnership has the potential to evolve beyond the traditional role of supplying our power unit and all related technical services.
"The United States continues to be one of the most important markets for Ferrari and it offers many interesting opportunities. We look forward to supporting [the team] in its efforts to become a competitive player on the Formula One grid."
Haas hailed the collaboration, saying: "There is no team in Formula One more accomplished than Scuderia Ferrari, and no team with more history. They've been a part of Formula One from the beginning.
"Aligning with such a tenured and successful company provides our team with the greatest opportunity for success in 2016 and beyond."
Gunther Steiner, team principal of the American squad, added: "These are exciting times and we are honored to have a partner in Scuderia Ferrari supporting our efforts.
"When it comes to Formula One, no one matches Scuderia Ferrari's knowledge, technical expertise and sheer determination. We understand there is some heavy lifting ahead of us, but know that with their technical support, we will develop a team of talented people at an exceptional pace so that we're ready to race competitively in 2016."
Ferrari currently have supply deals with Sauber and Marussia, providing both teams with power units and associated systems.